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ms2000_optimal_alignment_procedures

MS-2000 Controller Optimal Alignment Procedures

This Tech Note was written for MS2000, MFC2000 and RM2000 controller. However the same procedure can also be used on Tiger/TG-1000 controller.

MS-2000 controllers with firmware Version 8.0 and later may use the procedures outlined below to obtain optimal performance of the MS-2000 stage and/or Z-drive. Users with earlier firmware versions, or older hardware, should contact ASI for further information regarding upgrade options, or other service issues.

Alignment Overview

The MS-2000 controllers with Version 8.0+ firmware are highly configurable. Settings for the stage running speed, ramp up/down time, error thresholds, servo parameters, driver alignment settings, etc., may all be changed and saved in non-volatile memory. At ASI, we choose an optimal set of parameters suitable for most users before the stage leaves the factory, but our configuration may not necessarily the best for your application, or it is possible that conditions have changed and realignment is in order. Complete optimization consists of four parts. 1) Aligning the drive card to the stage and/or Z-drive motors, 2) Selecting speed and configuration parameters that you wish to use for the controller, 3) Saving the new settings to non-volatile memory so they are available upon power-up, and 4) Testing the new settings for suitability.

Proper calibration of the analog driver is required to get smooth, very slow speed operation of the stage with the digital closed-loop control. Proper drive card alignment also makes the joystick operation as smooth as possible under high magnification.

Drive Card Alignment

The purpose of aligning the analog feed back for the drivers is to reduce the dead zone near zero speed when low voltage is applied to the motor. The chart below shows typical a typical transfer function for various feed back adjustment values.

Click to Enlarge

As you can see, without any feedback, (blue diamonds, AA=1 case) there is a substantial region where supplying a commanded speed to the motor results in no motion whatsoever. The digital loop can somewhat overcome this nonlinearity, and still provide accurate positioning, but the dead zone will give rise to “wind-up” and overshoot in a digital loop that is well-tuned for the constant slope section of the transfer curve. Increasing the feedback (larger AA number) reduces the size of the dead region and significantly “linearizes” the transfer function near zero. Not surprisingly, problems associated with poor drive card alignment show up when the motors need to move slowly, i.e. when completing a move.

Adjusting the Feedback Alignment (AA)

All of the steps below require a connection to a computer terminal program. Refer to RS-232 Communication

WARNING: When doing the alignment of the motors, be sure there is room for the stage to travel a few centimeters and that there is no objective lens in place.

The following example will show alignment of the X axis. Alignment of the Y axis and Z drive channels is analogous.

Before we change anything we need to know the current feedback parameter setting. To find out, issue the command:

User’s typing shown in this typeface
MS-2000 responses are shown in red
AA X?     
X= 82    
:A

If you think the feedback is a little low (stage sluggish on landing) you can just increase the present value by a few counts using:

AA X=85
:A

Always issue the auto-zero command after changing the AA value to re-balance the output amplifiers.

AZ X
Zero C:0                  
C C:0 H:0 L:101
D C:1 H:0 L:109
Bracket H:125 L:109
E C:1 H:125 L:109         
E C:1 H:117 L:109         
Zerod at: 110

The procedure re-balances the amplifier now with the new Feedback value.

If you don’t get good results the first time, you can try higher or lower feedback values and re-test the motion.

Too much feedback can result in unstable jerky motion, the motor may tend to buzz, and the AZ command will often produce inconsistent results when repeated several times. Reduce the AA value is you see these symptoms. Too little feedback can result in no motion. With too little feedback, the motors will be trying to get to target but will be unable to do so, resulting in the status letter M (Motor) or B (Busy) on the LCD screen staying on for longer periods of time after a move.

Checking the Feedback Alignment (AA)

The alignment routine contains a built-in self-test that generates the data used in the chart above. To start the test use the command:

AA X=500    
:A

The number 500 triggers this test.

The data from this test are saved in the controller and must be dumped to the screen for you to evaluate. To do this, type the dump command:

DU 
idmp = 52
pos  err   spd
   -25        0        0
   -31        0        0
   -38        0        0
   -47        0        0
   -58        0        0
   -72        0        0
   -90        0        0
  -112        0        0
  -140        0        0
  -175        0        0
  -218       -3        0
  -272      -11        0
  -340      -32        0
  -425      -46        0
  -531     -290        0
  -663     -488        0
  -828     -686        0
 -1035     -990        0
 -1293    -1326        0
 -1616    -1689        0
 -2020    -2172        0
 -2525    -2792        0
 -3156    -3520        0
 -3945    -4430        0
 -4931    -5673        0
 -6163    -7114        0
    25        0        0
    31        0        0
    38        0        0
    47        0        0
    58        0        0
    72        0        0
    90        0        0
   112        0        0
   140       11        0
   175        1        0
   218       21        0
   272       46        0
   340       77        0
   425      156        0
   531      284        0
   663      431        0
   828      578        0
  1035      932        0
  1293     1254        0
  1616     1636        0
  2020     2063        0
  2525     2723        0
  3156     3438        0
  3945     4353        0
  4931     5560        0
  6163     6983        0

The numbers show the results for moves in both directions. The first number in each triplet it the speed ‘drive’ value, the independent variable. The second number, the relative speed the stage is moving. You want to be sure that there is motion at the low drive levels (below +/-500), and that the speed is at least quasi-monotonic. The example shows a typical, well-adjusted stage axis.

If you see very slow, usually zero, movement for drive values < 500, you could increase the AA value.

Setting Speed and Configuration Parameters

The discrete nature of encoders and timing cycles place a few limits on acceptable speed and up/down ramp settings. We do not try to go slower than one encoder count per servo-cycle, so this imposes certain discrete values for minimum slow speeds. It also makes no sense for a ramp to have a change in speed of less than one encoder count per servo-cycle. These constraints are built into the range-checking that is performed whenever either the speed (S) or the ramp time (AC) setting is changed. For instance, if we want to move at about 100 microns/second, we issue the command:

S X=.1 Y=.1

Then, ask for those values to be read back:

S X? Y?
: X=0.088110 Y=0.088110 A

We see that the controller has adjusted our choices somewhat. You can quickly see many of the controller parameter settings by issuing the info command:

I X
Axis Name      : X                  Error Status   :
Input Device   : JS_X     [J]       Motor Signal   :      128
Max Lim        :  110.947 [SU]      Min Lim        : -109.053 [SL]
Ramp Time      :       36 (ms)[AC]  Ramp Steps     :        6
Run Speed      :  0.08811 (mm/s)[S] vmax_enc       :        6
dv_enc         :        1           enc_bl_crossovr:       55
Drift Error    : 0.000500 (mm)[E]   enc_drift_err  :        5
Finish Error   : 0.000097 (mm)[PC]  enc_finish_err :        1
Backlash       : 0.040000 (mm)[B]   enc_backlash   :      453
Kp             :       20 [KP]      Ki             :        1 [KI]
Kv             :       25 [KV]
Axis Enable    :        1 [MC]      Motor Enable   :        0
CMD_stat       :  NO_MOVE           Move_stat      :   FINISH
Current pos    :  0.00000           enc position   :  8388608
Target pos     :  0.00000           enc target     :  8388608
enc pos error  :       -1           EEsum          :       -5
Lst Settle Time:       54 (ms)      Ave Settle Time:       84 (ms)

The parameters that are user-changeable are indicated by the presence of their command shortcut in the listing above. For instance, if you wished to reduce the Drift Error parameter you could issue the command:

E X=.0002 Y=.0002

Subsequent info requests would show the change to the Drift Error as well as to its corresponding parameter enc_drift_err, which is the Drift Error expressed in units of encoder counts.

Setting the appropriate error tolerances can have a dramatic effect on stage performance. Landing “on the count” is often possible, but will occasionally cause the controller to hang because mechanical “stiction” just doesn’t allow the motor to move such small amounts. Hence, we usually ship controllers with the Finish Error set to a distance equal to one encoder count. Once the stage moves to within the Finish Error distance of the target, it declares the move finished, clears the busy flag (the B on the LCD display), and enters the NO_MOVE state. Should the stage subsequently drift away from the target more than an amount specified by the Drift Error, the controller will re-energize the motors and bring the stage back to within the Finish Error distance once again.

In some instances, final positioning is very important so you may wish to reduce the Drift Error to one or two encoder counts. Doing so will cause the controller to attempt to reposition the stage more frequently. If you don’t care so much about accuracy, but are very concerned about the time it takes for the stage to settle to the target, you could increase the Finish Error parameter. You should notice a substantial decrease in the settling time.

On stages without linear encoders, we recommend using the built-in anti-backlash routine to improve the repeatability of the stage movement. The Backlash parameter specifies an offset distance from the final target position. A commanded move first moves to a target position offset by the Backlash parameter, and then subsequently moves on to the target. Although this helps to improve the repeatability of commanded moves, for some applications, it will cause more problems than it cures. To turn the Backlash off, just set its value to zero. (B X=0)

Setting Servo Parameters

Changing the servo parameters should be done only if drive card alignment still doesn't get the performance that is required from the system. The servo parameters that you may want to adjust are the KP and KI settings that determine the response of the servo loop to trajectory errors during a move. The KP term sets the motor drive proportional to the error, and the KI term sets the motor drive proportional to the time integral of the error. Before changing anything always query the controller to find out the present values of the parameters.

KP X?
A: X=50
KI X?
A: X=5

In general, increasing the KP parameter increases the stiffness of the motion; the stage more closely follows the desired command trajectory. Increasing the KI parameter fixes persistent errors more quickly, especially finding target at the end of travel. Too much of either parameter can cause instability and overshoots. Here are a few rules of thumb for setting these parameters.

  • Start with KI X=0. Increase KP value until unstable motion is detected on long moves. Back off KP value until motion is smooth.
  • Start with KI approximately 10% of the KP value obtained above. Make several short commanded moves and be sure the Busy clears quickly. If not, increase KI.

Once you have made changes, be sure to save the settings as discussed below.

Saving Settings to Non-Volatile Memory

Once you are happy with your settings, you can save them to flash EPROM so they will be used on subsequent start-ups. To save all of the current settings to Flash memory, use the SAVESET command

Testing and Error Checking Servo Motion

Testing the Motion

The MS-2000 controller has several built-in diagnostic capabilities that are useful for troubleshooting difficulties and for tuning the servo motion parameters. It is often useful to see how well the servo motion tracks the theoretical trajectory programmed by the controller for the move. The controller has a built-in buffer that can hold 200 move steps. For best results, restrict testing to a single axis at a time; otherwise, information from multiple axes will be interleaved in the dump buffer. Any motion from any axis will write information into the dump buffer until it is full. To begin a test, first reset the buffer with the command:

DU X [reset the dump buffer]

Then make a short move, e.g.:

M X=12345 [Moves about 1.2 mm] After the move is complete, you can dump the buffer to the screen:

DU
idmp = 121
pos  err   spd
 0 , 45 , 2250
 45 , 135 , 6310
 114 , 270 , 11348
 169 , 450 , 15840
 196 , 675 , 19218
 184 , 945 , 21034
 169 , 1215 , 20476
 118 , 1485 , 18464
 59 , 1755 , 16118
 18 , 2025 , 14482
 -1 , 2295 , 13722
 2 , 2565 , 13842
 22 , 2835 , 14646
 27 , 3105 , 14852
 50 , 3375 , 15784
 70 , 3645 , 16600
 74 , 3915 , 16778
 53 , 4185 , 15950
 45 , 4455 , 15640
 41 , 4725 , 15490
 39 , 4995 , 15418
 42 , 5265 , 15548
 42 , 5535 , 15558
 -5 , 5805 , 13678
 44 , 6075 , 15648
 61 , 6345 , 16342
 66 , 6615 , 16558
 59 , 6885 , 16292
 28 , 7155 , 15058
 27 , 7425 , 15024
 35 , 7695 , 15352
 47 , 7965 , 15842
 53 , 8235 , 16094
 41 , 8505 , 15624
 42 , 8775 , 15674
 44 , 9045 , 15764
 45 , 9315 , 15814
 40 , 9585 , 15624
 12 , 9855 , 14506
 22 , 10125 , 14910
 37 , 10395 , 15518
 52 , 10665 , 16130
 61 , 10935 , 16504
 57 , 11205 , 16358
 34 , 11475 , 15446
 29 , 11745 , 15252
 32 , 12015 , 15380
 38 , 12285 , 15628
 40 , 12555 , 15718
 38 , 12825 , 15646
 16 , 13095 , 14770
 23 , 13365 , 15054
 47 , 13635 , 16024
 -83 , 13790 , 10160
 -57 , 14015 , 8936
 -31 , 14195 , 7720
 -19 , 14330 , 5946
 -27 , 14420 , 3370
 -54 , 14433 , -4422
 -107 , 14343 , -8818
 -142 , 14208 , -12502
 -87 , 14190 , -8072
 -24 , 14145 , -3308
 -77 , 14010 , -3098
 11 , 14010 , 424
 78 , 14010 , 3122
 91 , 14010 , 3664
 71 , 14010 , 2880
 36 , 14010 , 1488
 7 , 14010 , 328
 -2 , 14010 , -32
 -9 , 14010 , -314
 -8 , 14010 , -276
 -5 , 14010 , -156
 -2 , 14010 , -36
 -2 , 14010 , -36
 0 , 14010 , 44    
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 3 , 14010 , 120
 0 , 14010 , 0
 -2 , 14010 , -80
 -2 , 14010 , -80
 -2 , 14010 , -80
 -2 , 14010 , -80
 -2 , 14010 , -80
 -2 , 14010 , -80
 -2 , 14010 , -80
 0 , 14010 , 0
 4 , 14010 , 160
 4 , 14010 , 160
 4 , 14010 , 160
 4 , 14010 , 160
 4 , 14010 , 160
 4 , 14010 , 160
 4 , 14010 , 160
 4 , 14010 , 160
 4 , 14010 , 160
 4 , 14010 , 160
 4 , 14010 , 160
 1 , 14010 , 40

All those numbers may not look particularly useful, but they have a lot of information about the system dynamics in them. Using HyperTerminal’s file capture capability, we can save the dumped information to a file and plot the results in a charting program like Microsoft’s Excel.

Click to Enlarge

The data shows the move trajectory, the error from desired path, as well as the drive signal given to the motor mover. For this move, there were six ramp-up and down points on the way to full velocity. Backlash of ~450 counts was enabled, the finish error was 1 encoder count, and the drift error was 2 encoder counts. During the time of maximum acceleration, there is also the most error. The short ramp (six cycles) contributes to the error (about 17 microns peak error from the theoretical path). Once the move is under way, the average error settles down to about 50 counts (4 microns). You can see the retrograde motion caused by the anti-backlash routine starting at about the 59th time step. There is a fair amount of overshoot and then the move settles in to find its final position. The move would clear the busy status at about step 77, but then it drifts outside the drift error range and cannot settle for another 45 time steps.

The user is advised that servo tuning can be a painstaking process, so only try new settings if you are unhappy with the default ones shipped from the factory.

Checking Internal Errors

The controller is designed to work with a wide variety of parameter settings, but there certainly could be conditions where the choice of parameters causes motion errors of one sort or another. To aid in diagnosing these problems, the MS-2000 controller has an error buffer of the last 256 error conditions it has encountered since last power up. The error codes can be accessed by the command:

DU Y [dump error codes] The buffer is cleared with:

DU X [clear buffers] Error codes are dumped to the screen with the last error code shown first. The table below lists the meanings of the error codes, as of the date of this publication.

Error Codes for MS2000,RM2000 and TG-1000 Diagnostics

Error codes are dumped to the screen with the last error code shown first using the DU Y command. The table below lists the meanings of the error codes as of this publication.

Error Number † Error Description
0 No Error
1-9 OVERTIME – RECOVERABLE. Error caused by competing tasks using the microprocessor.
10-14 OVERSHOT – Move overshot the target; happens frequently, not really an error.
15 NEGATIVE LOG – Negative number for Log conversion.
20-23 AXIS DEAD – FATAL. No movement for 100 cycles; axis halted.
30-33 RUN AWAY – FATAL. Getting further from the target; axis halted.
34 UPPER LIMIT – Upper Limit reached. (axis unspecific)
35 LOWER LIMIT – Lower Limit reached. (axis unspecific)
36 MOVE INTO UPPER (axis unspecific)
37 MOVE INTO LOWER (axis unspecific)
38 BACK VOLTAGE LIMIT (axis unspecific)
42 Crisp Error
43 Crisp Halted
44 Finish Speed Clamp
45 ADC_LOCK_OOR – Out-of-range error for locked servo - causes unlock.
46 ADC_FOLLOW_ERR – Error attempting to follow an analog ADC input.
47 Servo Locked
48 Task Loop Overtime
49 Low Light
50-53 ENCODER ERROR OVERFLOW – FATAL. Error term so large that move intent is indiscernible; axis halted.
54 I2C Poll Error
55 EPROM NO LOAD – Saved-settings on EPROM not loaded, compile date mismatch.
56 I2C Busy Error
57 I2C Write Error 1
58 I2C Read Error 1
59 I2C No Acknowledgement Error , followed by I2C Chip Address
60-65 ADJUST-MOVE ERROR – Failed to clear ‘M’ soon enough. FATAL
85 SCAN LOST PULSES – During a scan, missing pulses were detected.
86 SCAN INCOMPLETE – During a scan, terminated before completing the row.
87 TTL Report Buffer Overrun
90-94 ERROR_LARGE – RECOVERABLE. Error large. Motor set to FULL SPEED; hope to catch up.
100-104INDEX NOT FOUND
105 Buffer Overrun
106 Buffer Underrun
110 SPIM Loop Time
120-124 Encoder E Flag
140 ADEPT High Voltage low
141 ADEPT I2C Dead
142 PIEZO READ POS
143 PIEZO WRITE POS
144 PIEZO MOVE ERR
145 PIEZO READ POS1
146 PIEZO INIT
147 PIEZO POS ERROR
148 Autofocus 200um safety limit Encountered
149 I2C_BAD_BUSY ERROR
150 READ_I2C_ZERO_POT_ERR1
151 READ_I2C_ZERO_POT_ERR2
152 READ_I2C_FEEDBACK_POT_ERR1
153 READ_I2C_FEEDBACK_POT_ERR2
154 READ_I2C_ALIGNSET_ERR1
155 READ_I2C_ALIGNSET_ERR2
156 WRITE_I2C_ALIGNSET_ERR1
157 WRITE_I2C_ALIGNSET_ERR2
158 READ_BYTE_I2C_U15_ERR1
159 READ_BYTE_I2C_U15_ERR2
160 READ_BYTES_I2C_U15_ERR1
161 READ_BYTES_I2C_U15_ERR2
162 WRITE_BYTE_I2C_U15_ERR1
163 WRITE_BYTE_I2C_U15_ERR2
164 WRITE_BYTES_I2C_U15_ERR
165 WRITE_I2C_ZERO_POT_ERR1
166 WRITE_I2C_ZERO_POT_ERR2
167 WRITE_I2C_FEEDBACK_POT_ERR1
168 WRITE_I2C_FEEDBACK_POT_ERR2
169 DC_PORT_SETUP1_ERR
170 DC_PORT_SETUP2_ERR
171 DC_PORT_SETUP3_ERR
172 I2C_CALIBRATION_ERR
173 I2C_AXIS_ENABLE_ERR1
174 I2C_AXIS_ENABLE_ERR2
175 I2C_AXIS_MUTE1_ERR
176 I2C_AXIS_MUTE2_ERR
177 I2C_READ_TTL_ERR1
178 I2C_READ_PIEZO_DAC_ERR1
179 I2C_READ_PIEZO_DAC_ERR2
180 I2C_WRITE_PIEZO_DAC_ERR
181 I2C_READ_ERR2
182 MS_I2C_IDLE_ERR
183 MS_I2C_STOP_ERR
184 I2C_WRITE_ERR2
185 I2C_WRITE_ERR3
186 I2C_WRITE_ERR4
187 I2C_WRITE_ERR5
188 I2C_WRITE_ERR6
189 I2C_WRITE_ERR7
190 I2C_WRITE_ERR8
191 I2C_WRITE_ERR9
192 I2C_WRITE_ERRA
193 I2C_WRITE_ERRB
194 I2C_WRITE_ERRC
195 I2C_NACK_ERR3
196 I2C_NACK_ERR4
197 I2C_READ_ERR3
198 I2C_READ_ERR4
199 I2C_READ_ERR5
200 I2C_READ_ERR6
201 I2C_READ_ERR7
202 I2C_READ_TTL_ERR2
203 I2C_NACK_ERROR
204 ERR_TTL_READ_TIMEOUT
205 ERR_TTL_MISMATCH I2C bus error.
206 I2C_WRITE_ERRD
207 I2C_WRITE_ERRE
208 I2C_READ_ERR8
209 I2C_READ_ERR9
210 I2C_WRITE_ERRF
211 I2C_WRITE_ERR10
212 I2C_WRITE_ERR11
213 I2C_WRITE_ERR12
214 I2C_WRITE_ERR13
215 I2C_WRITE_ERR14
216 I2C_WRITE_ERR15
217 READ_BYTE_I2C_U15_ERR3
218 READ_BYTE_I2C_U15_ERR4
219 READ_BYTE_I2C_U15_ERR5
220 READ_BYTE_I2C_U15_ERR6
221 I2C_BUS_ERROR_RD
222 I2C_BUS_ERROR_WR
223 I2C_WRITE_ERR16
224 I2C_WRITE_ERR17
225 RDBYTE_0
226 RDBYTE_1
227 RDBYTE_2
228 RDBYTE_3
229 RDBYTE_4
230 RDBYTE_5
231 RDBYTE_6
233 RDBYTE_7
234 RDBYTE_8
235 RDBYTE_9
236 READ_I2C_ALIGNSET_ERR3
237 I2C_WRITE_INT_ERR1
238 I2C_WRITE_INT_ERR2
239 I2C_WRITE_OP_CODE_ERR1
240 I2C_WRITE_OP_CODE_ERR2
241 I2C_READ_INT_ERR1
242 I2C_READ_INT_ERR2
243 I2C_NACK_WRITING
244 LIMIT_NOT_FOUND
248 CRIFF_I2C_ERR1
249 CRIFF_I2C_ERR2
250 I2C_READ_FAIL
254 REPORT_PSD
255 WRITE_DAC_ERROR0
256 WRITE_DAC_ERROR1
257 WRITE_DAC_ERROR2
258 I2C_DIP_SWITCH_ERR0
259 I2C_DIP_SWITCH_ERR1
260 I2C_DIP_SWITCH_ERR2
261 WRITE_DAC_ERROR3
262 I2C_DIP_SWITCH_ERR3
263 WRITE_I2C_ALIGNSET_ERR3
264 LCD_STATE_ERROR
300 Autofocus Scan failed due to insufficient contrast
301 Autofocus Calibration Failed
302 Clutch Disengaged, Engage clutch to do Autofocus
305-311 Source of last Reset , Very common there will always be one preset on controller start.
305(External VDD Mon),309(Software cmd or reset button),307(Missing Clk), 306(Onboard VDD Mon)
500 TX1_OVERRUN
501 TST_ERROR0
502 TST_ERROR1
503 TST_ERROR2
504 TST_ERROR3
505 TST_ERROR4
600-604 FEEDBACK_POT0_TEST
610-614 ZERO_POT0_TEST
620-624 ALIGNSET0_TEST
630-634 ENCODER_TEST
635 DIP_SWITCH_SELF_TEST
636 PIEZO_DAC_TEST
640-641 FW_DEAD_ERROR
650-651 FW_ABSENT_ERROR
665 I2C_RECOVER_SUCCESS
666 I2C_RECOVER_FAILED
65535 10 MINUTE ELAPSED TIME MARK

† Where multiple errors are listed, the last digit indicates the axis number that is in error. On three-axis units X=0, Y=1, and Z=2; on single-axis MFC units, Z=0.

FATAL errors cause the controller to halt motion on the axis that has the error. A commanded move will not be completed to the desired precision if a FATAL error occurs.

RECOVERABLE errors do not stop the controller from attempting to complete a commanded move. Large numbers of recoverable errors should be taken as a warning. Frequent servo errors (numbers 90-92) often mean that the speed is near or exceeding the stage maximum. Frequent overtime errors (numbers 1-9) often mean that competing processes, such as over-frequent serial status requests, are using too much CPU time.

2016/03/15 00:45 · vik
Address: 29391 W Enid Rd. Eugene, OR 97402, USA | Phone: +1 (541) 461-8181
ms2000_optimal_alignment_procedures.txt · Last modified: 2019/04/18 23:34 (external edit)